Evaluation of Knee Proprioception and Kinesthesia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

amin kordi yoosefinejad, Farzaneh Moslemi Haghighi


Background: Diabetes is a highly significant public health problem inIran with a prevalence of 5 to 8%. Proprioception plays an important role in the orientation and limb movement in space. Diabetic neuropathy decreases sensory function and causes gait instabilities.

Objective: The present study evaluated knee proprioception and kinesthesia in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without neuropathy and compared the results with those of healthy people.

 Methods: The subjects were ten type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetes type 2 associated with neuropathy, ten patients with diabetes without neuropathy and ten healthy people as the control group. Data were collected in a physical examination and using a questionnaire. Special tests included manual muscle testing of the knee musculature, Achilles and patellar reflexes, and knee proprioception and kinesthesia. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test.

Results: the results show that knee proprioception and kinesthesia were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in comparison with healthy people and there was a greater decline in patients with diabetes associated with neuropathy than in patients with diabetes without neuropathy. Also, knee musculature strength was significantly lower in patients with diabetes in comparison with healthy people and the attenuation was greater in neuropathic patients than in non-neuropathic ones.

 Conclusions: Patients with diabetes type 2 especially those with neuropathy suffer from proprioception deficits. Proprioception training may prevent secondary problems occurring as a result of proprioception impairment in patients with diabetes type2.


Diabetes type 2, Neuropathy, Proprioception, Kinesthesia, Continuous Passive Motion

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